BIO 1A_23_Osmoregulation_Excretion_14- 2021 | Chapter 44 Osmoregulation and Excretion

containing waste products of metabolism. Controlling the Internal EnvironmentAquatic animals: Maintain water balance by compensating for net osmosis between external environment and internal fluids: Isosmotic external environment There is no net movement of water by osmosis. Hypo-osmotic external environment Water will move from the external environment to the internal fluids. Hyperosmotic external environment Water will move from the internal fluids to the external environment.Marine Animals: 1. Osmoconformers most marine invertebrates May still need to regulate internal concentrations of specific ions. Usually slight, but may be significant. 2. Osmoregulators most marine vertebrates a. Cartilaginous fish (eg, sharks) b. Bony fishMaintain a lower osmolarity for NaCl than seawater. NaCl diffuses through gills. Excrete NaCl: a. Kidneys (some) b. Rectal glands (salt excretory glands) Cartilaginous fishBody fluids still slightly hyperosmotic to seawater Due to accumulation of urea and trimethlyamine oxide (TMAO) in fluids. Water slowly enters body by osmosis. Kidneys eliminate excess water as urine.Body fluids are hypo-osmotic to seawater. Constant loss of water to surroundings by osmosis. Constant gain of salt by diffusion and in food. Bony marine fishes:Drinking large quantities of seawater and pump out excess salt through gills and skin. Chloride cells in gills pump chloride ions out, sodium follows passively. Kidneys excrete only small amounts of water.Body fluids are hyperosmotic to fresh water. Constantly taking water in by osmosis. Constantly losing salt by diffusion. Freshwater Animals: perchExcrete large volumes of dilute urine and regain lost salts. Chloride cells in gills pump chloride ions in, sodium follows passively. Ingest salt in food.Terrestrial animals: Covered by relatively impervious surfaces to prevent dehydration: Nervous and hormonal mechanisms to control thirst. Kidneys conserve water and concentrate urine.Nitrogenous Wastes: Metabolism of proteins and nucleic acid produces nitrogenous waste = ammonia Ammonia is eliminated as Ammonia very toxic – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Continued [Show less]

Custom Paper Help
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.