Describe the historical background of Asian/Pacific American communities in the United States and how police departments have responded to this community.

DQ: Describe the historical background of Asian/Pacific American communities in the United States and how police departments have responded to this community. Then explain key issues associated with law enforcement contact in Asian/Pacific American communities. Lastly, create 3 suggestions on how police departments can improve their relationship with Asian/Pacific American communities.
Then Please Respond to these 5 post (1-2 sentences):1. Harli SaragusaHi class,The first group of Asian/Pacific American communitites to arrive in the United States were Chinese in the 1850’s. Closer to the 1900’s, Japanese and Filipino people also traveled over to the United States. They followed in larger numbers than the Koreans and South Asian Indians. Congressional action in 1946 caused a large number of Asian Indians to enter the United States, as well as Filipinos, both Indians and Filipinos were limited to 100 persons per year for becoming a citizen. Until the change of the immigration laws in 1965, the amount of Asian and Pacific Islander peoples coming into the United States was restricted, and families often had to wait at least a decade before seeing each other again (Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019). Police departments responded to this community by enforcing Anti-Asian local, federal, and state laws. From the start of Asian/Pacific Americans coming to the United States, their interractions with law enforcement consisted of conflicts, difficulties, and mixed signals (Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019).A key issues associated with law enforcement contact in Asian/Pacific American communities is the underreporting of crimes. Due to officers in their home country brutalizing them, they often refrain from seeking police assistance. Unless crimes are related to bigger criminal activity, they often go unreported to police. Because of policing in their home countries, they lack knowledge of the United States law enforcement system and would rather not contact police (Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019).Police departments can improve their relationship with Asian/Pacific American communities by building trust with them. The U.S. legal team is different than any other country and handles situations in a different manner. Proving this can gain the trust of their community. Also going back to our previous lesson, a diverse police force will show people who have become part of the United States that they are accepted by law enforcement. They will instantly feel more comfortable and less like they are being looked down on if there is an officer that they can relate to. Lastly, officers should treat people who immigrated to the U.S. with the same respect as people who were born in the U.S. Proving that they are not looked at differently is key to gaining trust and comfortability in differing communities.Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019). Multicultural Communities. In Multicultural Law Enforcement: Strategies for peacekeeping in a diverse society (Seventh). essay, Pearson.
2. Joanne MulroneyThe first Asian/Pacific American communities to arrive in the US was the Chinese in the 1820’s and followed by the 1900’s “the United States establishes a territorial government in Hawai’i with the Organic Act. The U.S. Congress makes Hawai’i a territory of the United States…” (Natural Resources Conservation Service) which is where the Japanese laborers were living. Moving forward to 1943, Congress had gotten rid of laws against the Chinese in which allowed them to have rights of naturalization. In 1982, a man, Vincent Chin, was severely beaten with a bat and died from injuries, when the defendant was only sentenced 3 years probation it became a rallying point for the Asian-American community. Fast forward to today’s society, “reports of bias incidents and hate crimes against Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) individuals have increased in communities across the country. Xenophobia and the rise of misinformation about the coronavirus have led to reports of harassment on public transportation, denial of hotel reservations, verbal harassment, and physical attacks.”()Police departments have made it a point to ensure that all members apart of the AAPI communities need to be treated no different than others no matter their background, the language they speak, or their religious beliefs. Knowing that this is such a big issue especially with all the crimes being done, police departments were told to keep an eye out for these type of issues within communities and try their best to not allow them to happen. Key issues associated with law enforcement contact in Asian/Pacific American communities have been juggled to determine if they believe that police officers are the proper role to be helping the issue since they seem to be very opinionated, and over the past year there was protests over African Americans and police brutality.There are a few suggestions on how police departments can improve their relationship with Asian/Pacific American communities. One could be that they need to show more support to minorities as a whole. Having police officers not showing support to the communities they are supposed to serve and protect does not help their situation of having the people on their side. Another suggestion would be to allow more people to feel welcomed in their recruiting process since it seems to be more of a trend to have caucasian men as officers. Lastly I’d suggest that opinions or personal beliefs shouldn’t be made known, or shown within a work environment. Keeping all this to yourself will keep people from knowing what people’s personal beliefs are, regardless if you are an officer serving a variety of different people, you should show respect to anyone.Natural Resources Conservation Service. Asian Pacific American History | NRCS Georgia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2022, from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/ga/about/outreach/sep/?cid=nrcseprd908407Responding to hate crimes against AAPI communities. The United States Department of Justice. (2021, June 4). Retrieved February 1, 2022, from https://www.justice.gov/crs/highlights/AAPI-hate-crimes
3. Gabriella PlodzienGood Afternoon Everyone,The Asian/Pacific American communities in the United States have grown over the last fifty years rapidly. Lots of Asian/Pacific Americans have resided in major urban areas. There are over forty different ethnic groups from the Asian/Pacific American class. In the 185os, the Chinese immigrated to the US. After that, groups such as the Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and South Asian Indians followed after to reside in the United States of America. When the immigration laws were altered, more Asian/Pacific Islanders were able to unite with their families because the restriction of immigration was let up. “After the Vietnam War, large numbers of Southeast Asian refugees were admitted in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The needs for engineering and scientific expertise and skills in high-tech and Internet companies resulted in man Asian/Pacific nationals immigrating under special work visas to the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s” (Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019). In the beginning, when the Asian/Pacific Islanders resided in America, they had a negative relationship with law enforcement. This was because these officers had the responsibility of carrying out the laws that were hostile and “anti-Asian”. “This, from the beginning, the interactions of Asian/Pacific Americans with law enforcement officials were fraught with conflicts, difficulties, and mixed messages” (Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019).Some key issues were associated with law enforcement contact in Asian/Pacific American communities. Due to Asian/Pacific Americans having horrible experiences in the past with law enforcement officers, they became reluctant when reporting crimes. Instead of seeking emergency help/assistance, Asian/Pacific Americans stayed quiet. “Police in their home countries brutalized and violated them and others” (Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019). If an Asian/Pacific American was dealing with conflict within their home or family business, law enforcement would not hear of these issues due to fear. Also, people of this culture/background do not quite understand the laws in the United States of America, therefore they try and always avoid having contact with law enforcement officers.The three suggestions I created on how police departments can improve their relationship with Asian/Pacific American communities are: (1) Having a community-oriented policing unit will help to create bonds between the community and law enforcement. This will build trust between them. (2) Recruiting officers who speak the same languages as Asian/Pacific Americans. This will help other officers to understand the Asian/Pacific Americans because they can translate and clarify the US Legal System. (3) Celebration of Asian/Pacific Americans holidays is a great suggestion because it will show that American law enforcement officers have full respect for Asian/Pacific Americans and this will also build a relationship between them. It is important to fix the rough patch that Asian/Pacific Americans have towards the Police. All around this will be a plus to the community and law enforcement officers.Sincerely, Gabriella PlodzienWorks Cited:Shusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019). Multicultural Communities. In Multicultural Law Enforcement: Strategies for peacekeeping in a diverse society (Seventh). essay, Pearson.4. Eva QuinonesThe Asian/Pacific American community has experienced the largest proportional increase of any minority population in the United States over the past five decades. There are several factors which contribute to this substantial growth, including, steady immigration, relative longevity, and admission of immigrants with special skills and expertise (Shusta et al., 2019). When Asian/Pacific Americans first began immigrating to the US in the 1850s, many worked in gold mines in California and on the transcontinental railroad. Most of the immigrants during that time were men, and until the change of the immigration laws in 1965, numbers remain quite small due to restrictions placed on the number of immigrants that could enter the US. After the changes in law, large numbers began coming in throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s. Currently, Asian/Pacific Americans are often found in major urban areas, and their interactions with law enforcement has also increased over the years (Shusta et al., 2019). The early experiences of Asian/Pacific Islanders in the US were not good. They were met with hostility and discrimination, which led to Anti-Asian laws, which did not begin being repealed until the 1940s.These laws caused conflict with law enforcement due to racial tension, as well as their duty to enforce these laws (Shusta et al., 2012)
Some key issues that exist between Asian/Pacific Americans and law enforcement include the underreporting of crimes, hate crimes and human trafficking. According to Shusta et al. (2019), due to their past distrust or lack of knowledge of law enforcement, many Asian/Pacific Americans are reluctant to report crimes. Hate crimes are committed against Asian/Pacific Americans due to the perception that they are immigrants, which often causes anger and blame for the lack of jobs or state of the economy. Many victims of human trafficking are from Asian countries, and are often perpetrated by Asian/Pacific Americans, with more than 20.9 million victims worldwide (Shusta et al., 2019).Three suggestions that I have that may help improve the relationships between law enforcement and Asian/Pacific communities are community policing, cross-cultural training, and the recruitment of more Asian/Pacific officers who are bilingual. I believe community policing is always a great way for police officers to not only build rapport within the community, but also helps them better understand the people within that community. Asian/Pacific American members of the community may be more willing to report crimes if they are familiar and comfortable with the officers within their local law enforcement office. Next, cross-culture training should be given to officers on any culture that is found in their community. A course such as this one has even given me so much insight into different cultures, and I can see how even more intensive training could help improve the relationship through better understanding of the culture. Finally, by recruiting more Asian/Pacific American officers, law enforcement agencies will not only further diversify their own force, but also help communication with Asian/Pacific Americans, especially ones who do not speak English.ReferenceShusta, R. M., Levine, D. R., & Olson, A. T. (2019). Multicultural Law Enforcement: Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society. Essay, Pearson.
5. Nikkita WaltonAsian/Pacific Americans started arriving in record numbers in the mid 1800’s, they faced discrimination and exclusion for over 100 years and they still face it today. In 1875 the page act was signed into law this act prohibited the recruitment of laborers in the Asian/Pacific country, it also blocked Chinese women from entering the country so men could not start families. In 1882 the Chinese exclusion act was signed into law to ban Chinese workers from entering the country and excluded them from American citizenship. In 1885 Chinese coal mine laborers were murdered because White men were angry that their jobs were being taken away, 28 Chinese men were killed and 15 were injured, this was known as the Rock Spring Massacre. Homes of Chinese families were burned down and some were looted. In 1887 thirty four Chinese miners were murdered and mutilated (History.com editors, (2021).
Asian/Pacific communities always had trust issues with the police departments, they feel unnoticed and like they are not being heard, their cries for help get swept under the rug. Asian Americans are least likely to report crimes due to fear of retaliation and also distrust of law enforcement. Police often don’t provide translators or help in navigating the system, most Asian/Pacific Americans doubt the effectiveness of police officers. Asian Americans with language barriers often need help from a family member or a neighbor as a translator to report crimes which discourages most of them. Anti hate crimes have gone up but Asian Americans do not want more policing in their neighborhoods because they do not trust law enforcement. Key issues is conflict, distrust, not reporting crimes and the Asian American community not feeling like the police officers notice them or care about the crime they are reporting (Yam, (2021).
Three suggestions to improve community and police relations with the Asian/Pacific communites is recruitment within the Asian/Pacific community, improving community relations by creating programs for the police department and the community together. The third suggestion is learning the behaviors of the different Asian communities .
References:
History.com Editors, 2021, history.com/topics/immigrantsKimmy Yam, 2021, NBCnews.com,Asian Americans Are Least Likely to Report Hate Incidents, New Research Shows

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