Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Hurricane Katrina the Impact of Vertical and Horizontal Intergovernmental Fragmentation. It needs to be at least 1250 words. The people affected in this area suffered greatly due to this unforeseen event. The entire infrastructure of New Orleans was destroyed. The departure of residents from the area due to lack of housing has changed the place. It is estimated that over 770,000 people were forced to .seek refuge because of Katrina, a figure representing Americans’ largest migrations since the Dust Bowl Migrations of the 1930s (Homeland Security, 2006). .In the early stages of Katrina’s aftermath, the Superdome was utilized as a refugee center for over 20,000 people. The surrounding areas were in a horrible state, and overcrowding of the center cause serious sanitation problems. There was overheating with no air conditioning, and bathrooms malfunctioned because of a lack of water. Throughout the city, riots exploded as starving people became desperate and turned to violence. Looters began to take everything from abandoned flooded stores. The residents’ crimes and desperation made it unsafe to evacuate the area until the situation could be stabilized by law enforcement. Excessive flooding was a factor which slowed down evacuation tremendously.The city of New Orleans did not have any legitimate plan to handle a disaster before Katrina. All major cities have plans to evacuate their entire population in case of an emergency. In New Orleans, their massive evacuation plan was to rely mainly on the faith-based community to organize and mobilize caravans out of the city for those without cars or who needed special assistance (Walters, 2005). A city is responsible for attending to its residents’ needs during the first 24 to 48 hours during an emergency. State and federal governments are not able to provide instant assistance.New Orleans was a very poor community before Katrina, which was mostly populated by African Americans. In 2005 68% of New Orleans residents were African-American, and 23% of the overall population was living below the federal poverty standard, a poverty rate nearly double the national average (Guion & Scammon & Borders). A community with such a high proportion of its population in one ethnic group has a segregated community’s characteristics. The general perception of the African American population in the area was that their community was not important to the government before, during, or after Katrina.  .After the storm hit, there were insufficient vehicles to evacuate the area. Over one-fifth of the population did not have access to cars, and the city’s inefficient public system delayed the evacuation process. High levels of poverty and the governments’ indifference towards improving a minority-owned community’s living standards greatly influenced Katrina’s ramifications.
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