using geo map (free app)and excel to finish the assignment. Please do not take this job if u are not familiar with these features. The steps are simply on ESS362_LabExcercise_1_2020.pdf. I can provide textbook through email. Please read the background materials for each part. It explains everything. ONLY CITE TEXTBOOK MATERIAL. Finish the following questions. Q1.1-1.8, Q2.1-2.3, Q3.1-3.3 1 ESS362 Lab and Exercise 1 For Prof. Bergquist Handed out Jan. 13th, 2020 Due Mon Jan. 24th, 2020 Topography & Bathymetry Profiles, Depth-Age Relationship and Plate Motions Last Name: ______________
using geo map (free app)and excel to finish the assignment. Please do not take this job if u are not familiar with these features. The steps are simply on ESS362_LabExcercise_1_2020.pdf. I can provide textbook through email. Please read the background materials for each part. It explains everything. ONLY CITE TEXTBOOK MATERIAL. Finish the following questions. Q1.1-1.8, Q2.1-2.3, Q3.1-3.3 1 ESS362 Lab and Exercise 1 For Prof. Bergquist Handed out Jan. 13th, 2020 Due Mon Jan. 24th, 2020 Topography & Bathymetry Profiles, Depth-Age Relationship and Plate Motions Last Name: ____________________________________________ (please print) First Name: _____________________________________________ Student ID:__________________________________________ Part I Bathymetry profiles and GeoMapApp Plot topographic and bathymetric (ocean depth) to relate large-scale features on Earths surface to lithospheric plates, earthquakes, and volcanoes. This exercise also provides experience with graphing with GeoMapApp and concepts of scale. A bathymetric profile provides a “skyline view” of the sea floor in which hills are seen as rises and valleys as depressions. For a graphical profile to illustrate the true shape of the sea floor, a ratio of 1:1 for vertical and horizontal distances must be the same or have a ratio of 1:1. This means that one unit on the vertical scale is the same distance as one unit on the horizontal scale. However, the slopes of ocean features (i.e., relief) are generally so small that it is difficult to see sea floor features. Typical Atlantic Ocean basin features are only a few kilometers high, while the basin itself extends laterally for thousands of kilometers. If the profile were displayed with a 1: 1 ratio on a regular sheet of paper, it would appear as a flat line. In order to illustrate the details of the sea floor relief, the depth scale of an ocean profile is vertically exaggerated (stretched) relative to the horizontal scale. Vertical exaggeration causes distortion in the shapes of the bathymetric features that are being illustrated with the amount of distortion increasing with the amount of exaggeration. As vertical exaggeration increases on a profile, hills appear to be higher, valleys deeper and the slopes between them become much steeper. Slopes, that in reality are gentle, will look steep; steep slopes will appear to be precipitous. For example, when the vertical scale has been stretched four times relative to the horizontal scale, we have a vertical exaggeration (VE) of 4. The vertical exaggeration (VE) associated with a general profile is found by dividing the horizontal scale by the vertical scale according to: VE = Horizontal Scale/Vertical Scale Example: VE= (1= 100ft)/(l= 25ft)= 4 2 PROFILING EARTHS SURFACE USING GEOMAPAPP PURPOSE To relate large-scale features on Earths surface to lithospheric plates, earthquakes, and volcanoes. To introduce GeoMapApp, an easy-to-use mapping program focused on marine geology and geophysics. OVERVIEW First, follow the directions given below to draw a cross section showing elevation along the line (B-B) using GeoMapApp. After printing out your cross section, add the characteristics specified in (1-5). INSTRUCTIONS Download GeoMapApp onto your computer or laptop. Go to http://www.geomapapp.org/index.htm and follow the instructions for downloading. After downloading the program, double-click on the GeoMapApp.jar icon to run the program. Choose the Mercator map. Inside GeoMapApp, click on the Distance/Profile tool at the top of the screen: B B 3 You may need to patiently wait while GeoMapApp opens the profiling tool. When the program is ready, refer to the world map pictured in this exercise. To draw the B-B line in GeoMapApp, place your cursor in the appropriate location on the Pacific Plate. Click on the mouse as you drag the cursor over just north of Madagascar. When you first do this, the line might be drawn as a great circle. In the profile tool, click the box specifying that you would like to draw the cross section along a straight line: Next, save the profile to your computer and then print it out. Using a pencil, add the following characteristics to your topographic profile. For some of these, you will need to refer to outside sources such as your textbook. For others, you may discover tools or databases within GeoMapApp to help you. Profile 1 Questions: _Q1.1: Identify and label the positions of the following features on the crosssection: a. Plate boundaries and their types (e.g., label the East Pacific Rise and indicate that it is a mid-ocean ridge) b. Lithospheric plates and their names c. Continental margins and their types (passive or active) _Q1.2: Put a series of Xs within the cross-section to represent zones where significant earthquake activity might be expected to occur. Be sure to place the Xs at the appropriate depths. _Q1.3: Put _s on the surface of the cross-section to illustrate where you would expect volcanic activity to occur. Atlantic Ocean Basin Now produce a bathymetric profile across the Atlantic from N. America (~75W,40N) to N. Africa (~14W,20N). Try to include only a little bit of the land above sea level. Profile 2 Questions: _Q1.4: On the graph, label the following features of the ocean basin: continental slope, abyssal plain, mid-Atlantic ridge. 4 _Q1.5: What is the approximate ocean depth at the mid-Atlantic ridge and the relief of the ridge (difference in depths, or elevations, between the top of the ridge and the adjacent, relatively flat ocean bottom)? Ocean depth at mid-Atlantic ridge __________ Relief (difference in ocean depth between the ridge and the abyssal plain) of the mid-Atlantic ridge __________ _Q1.6: What is the approximate slope of the west flank of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (measure the difference in ocean depth along the profile between about 2200 km and 3200 km distance and divide by the difference in distance, 3200-2200 or 1000 km). Be sure that both measurements, differences in depth, and distance, are in the same units, either km or m. The resulting number will be the slope expressed as a ratio. The slope can also be given as a percent or as an angle. Approximate slope of the west side of the mid-Atlantic ridge __________. Last Profile: Mariana Trench region Produce a bathymetric profile across the Mariana Trench region and include both the volcanic arc ridge along with the farther back remnant arc. Profile Questions: _Q1.7: On the bathymetric profile, label the trench, the active volcanic arc, and the remnant volcanic arc. _Q1.8: Under the profile, sketch what you think is happening in the crust and upper mantle (i.e., what are the plates doing here?). 5 Part II Analyzing the ocean depth and age adjacent to the Midocean ridge. In Part I of this exercise, we examined the depth of the Atlantic Ocean basin and observed the prominent mid-ocean ridge (MOR) near the center of the ocean basin. The MOR is also known to be an area of shallow earthquake and volcanic activity and is interpreted as a spreading center where new ocean lithosphere is formed. The newly formed oceanic crust and uppermost mantle then moves away from the ridge as part of plate tectonic processes. The uplift of the MOR is interpreted to be due to rising hot material that forms the new ocean lithosphere. As observed in the ocean profile, the ocean depth increases away from the MOR. The subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere is caused by cooling of the lithosphere as it moves away from the ridge and area of rising hot material. We can examine this process using ocean crust age and depth data. In the figure below, the age of the oceanic crust for a part of the North Atlantic Ocean is shown by the colors. The bold line is the Atlantic Ocean profile used in Part I. The numbers above the profile to the east of the MOR are interpreted age boundaries in millions of years. The ocean age information is derived from radiometric dating of ocean crust samples from deep drilling, dating of index fossils in sediments overlying the newly-formed crust, and the paleomagnetic reversals time scale. Ocean crust ages for a portion of the North Atlantic Ocean (from http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/crustageposter.gif). In the Table on the next page, the first two columns show distance from the ridge and ocean depth. The ocean depth data are the average of the depths on the two 6 sides (west and east of the ridge) of the MOR. Using the distance scale on the OceanAge.pdf image above, estimate by interpolation the ocean crust age at 100 km increments out to 1200 km from the ridge and record the results in the Table. Then, take the square root of the age data and record the results in the last column. The first two age and square root of age data points, for 0 and 100 km distance, have already been entered in the Table. You should produce an Excel plot, or use other software, to attach to these pages for submission. Part II Questions: _Q2.1: Plot the ocean crust age and depth data. How does the depth change with increasing age? _Q2.2: Plot the square root of age and depth data. How does the depth change with increasing SQRT (age)? ________________________________________________________________________________ A theoretical cooling model of the oceanic lithosphere can be derived from the theory of the flow of heat through solids. The theory indicates that the ocean depth should increase away from the ridge approximately following the equation: Depth = slope SQRT (age) + y-intercept. The theory is further explained by the following: Newly formed oceanic lithosphere moves away from the mid-ocean ridge and cools as it is removed from underlying sources of heat. Cooling has two effects: 1) lithosphere contracts and increases in density; 2) the depth of the 7 lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary is controlled by temperature and cooling causes the lithosphere to increase in thickness away from the mid-ocean ridge. Cooling and contraction of the lithosphere cause a progressive increase in the depth to the top of the lithosphere away from the ridge. This is accompanied by a decrease in heat flow. Parsons & Sclater (1977) determined the nature of age-depth relationships of oceanic lithosphere, and have shown that the depth, d (metres) is related to age t (million years) by: This relationship only holds for oceanic lithosphere younger than 80 Ma. For older lithosphere, the relationship indicates a more gradual increase of depth with age. This relationship explains the observed bathymetry in most areas. Thus, if one knows the depth of the seafloor, it is possible to estimate the age of the seafloor. The depth of the seafloor depends upon its age rather than distance from the ridge. ________________________________________________________________________________ _Q2.3: Estimate a best fit straight line through the data points in the SQRT (age) vs. Depth graph (above) using Excel (linear trend line). Calculate the slope and intercept coefficients of the line and record them here (the form of this equation is y = bx + a, where y is depth, b is the slope, x is SQRT(age), and a is the y-intercept Depth = ______ SQRT (age) + ______ (Depth is in m, age is in m.y.; put b in the 1st space, a in the 2nd) The SQRT (age) vs. depth data should display a straight line relationship that is consistent (in shape and values of the coefficients) with the ocean lithosphere cooling model (and the physics of heat conduction), and thus provides strong evidence supporting the sea floor spreading process and plate tectonics theory. 8 Part III: Plate Motions Using Hot Spots: The Hawai'i-Emperor chain of seamounts (volcanoes resting on the ocean floor) stretches from its active end at the Big Island of Hawai'i west and north across the Pacific Ocean floor to the Aleutian trench near the Kamchatka Peninsula (first figure). There are about 110 individual volcanoes in the Hawai'i-Emperor chain (see the data table), which is about 6000 km (3800 miles) long altogether. The Hawai'iEmperor chain is divided into two segments, the WNW-trending Hawai'ian chain and the N-trending Emperor chain. The two chains meet at a prominent bend, around the underwater seamounts Daikakuji and Yuryaku. The active end (youngest end) of the Hawai'i-Emperor chain is at the Big Island of Hawai'i and the offshore, still underwater volcano Loihi. Kilauea volcano on the Big Island is active today, and other centers on the Big Island and on Maui have erupted recently. As one progresses towards the west-northwest, the volcanoes of the Hawai'ian Islands get progressively older (see data table). Once active volcano building through eruptions of lava ceases, the erosional forces of tropical weathering, landslides, river erosion, and wave action overcome the island, and erodes it down to sea level (second figure). The extinct volcano evolves to a flattopped mesa ringed by coral reefs, and then to an atoll with nothing but the circular 9 reef showing. Finally the volcano sinks beneath the waves, and becomes an underwater seamount. The Hawai'i-Emperor chain is a classic example of a hot spot track. The standard explanation begins with a hot spot whose source of magma is rooted deep in the Earth's mantle. The hot spot magma source is thought to be fixed in the deeper mantle, with a slab of ocean crust and uppermost mantle (called a plate) moving laterally above the hot spot. As the Pacific Plate moves over the Hawai'ian hot spot, magma punches up through the Pacific Plate, creating an active volcano. Plate motion carries the active volcano away from the magma source, the volcano goes extinct, and a new volcano grows over the hot spot. As the extinct volcano is carried farther and farther from the hot spot source, the volcano sinks beneath the waves mostly due to aging and cooling of the ocean crust underneath the extinct volcano; this cooling causes subsidence of the ocean floor. Hot spot tracks are very important geologic features for determining both the direction and speed of the plate upon which the seamounts rest. The direction of plate motion is given by the orientation of the chain of seamounts and volcanoes. Using your “hands of science”, you can quickly determine that the plate “moves towards the oldest volcano.” As can be seen in the first figure, the Pacific Plate moved almost due north during “Emperor time” (from 75 to 42 million years ago), and then changed direction about 42 million years ago (the age of the volcanoes at the bend in the chain), to move west-northwest during “Hawai'i time” (from 42 Ma 10 to the present). Note that the azimuths cited here assume no rotation of the Pacific Plate during the last 75 Ma. Hot spot tracks also give the speed of plate motion, if the length of the chains of volcanoes and seamounts, and the ages of the volcanoes and seamounts are known (data table). Plates typically move about 1-10 cm/year, which is equivalent to 10- 100 km/Ma (kilometers per million years). These speeds are about the rates at which fingernails grow, and may seem rather slow on the human time scale, but are very fast on the geological time scale. The Earth is 4.55 billion years old; one million years is a brief moment in Earth time. The speed of the North American plate (for example) is fairly typical for plates, about 6 cm/year, whereas the Marianas plate is one of the fastest (today), moving about 13 cm/year. Distances from the active Kilauea volcanic center (measured parallel to the Hawai'i-Emperor chain) and ages of each volcano and seamount are given in the data table (Clague and Dalrymple 1989). These data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources and researchers, which can introduce uncertainties. For example, different geochronologic laboratories determined the ages of the volcanic rocks from these seamounts, and different labs often use different machines, different standards, and different analytical techniques. Even with the highest quality of work, the ages have uncertainties that vary from sample to sample. Furthermore, volcanoes do not have a single age; a typical Hawai'ian volcano builds up over half a million years or more. Who is to say that the volcanic rocks dredged up from the underwater seamount Jingu (for example) are representative of Jingu's eruptive history? It is very difficult to sample Jingu's older rocks; they are covered by the young lavas. The data in the table are not without problems, and data should not simply be accepted at face value. Part III Questions: _Q3.1: First plot age (x-axis) versus distance from Kilauea volcanic center (y-axis). Data given in following table. Using Excel or some other graphing program, fit an unconstrained linear regression to the entire Hawai'i-Emperor chain and find the “typical” rate of Pacific Plate motion over the last 65 Ma. a. What are the units of both the rate and the Y-intercept? b. How would you write the equations using centimeters and years for units? _Q3.2: For the second part of their exercise, fit unconstrained regressions (do not force a linear fit through zero) to both the Hawai'i chain and the Emperor chain separately. a. Has the Pacific Plate sped up or slowed down over the last 65 Ma? b. A change in speed from the older part of the chain to the younger part of the chain seems reasonable from the data. Must a change in speed accompany a change in direction? 11 c. Approximately what direction did the Pacific plate move older than 42 million years ago? Younger than 42 million years ago? volcano age age) uncertainty)) distance distance) uncertainty) name (Ma) ()Ma) (km) ()km) Kilauea 0.2 0.2 0 1.5 Mauna.Kea 0.38 0.05 54 1.8 Kohala 0.43 0.02 100 2 East.Maui 0.75 0.04 182 2.5 Kahoolawe 1.03 0.18 185 2.5 West.Maui 1.32 0.04 221 2.7 Lanai 1.28 0.04 226 2.7 East.Molokai 1.76 0.07 256 2.9 West.Molokai 1.9 0.06 280 3 Koolau 2.6 0.1 339 3.3 Waianae 3.7 0.1 374 3.5 Kauai 5.1 0.2 519 4.2 Niihau 4.89 0.11 565 4.5 Nihoa 7.2 0.3 780 5.6 unnamed.1 9.6 0.8 913 6.3 Necker 10.3 0.4 1058 7.1 La.Perouse 12 0.4 1209 7.9 Brooks.Bank 13 0.6 1256 8.2 Gardner 12.3 1 1435 9.1 Laysan 19.9 0.3 1818 11.1 Northampton 26.6 2.7 1841 11.3 Pearl.&.Hermes 20.6 0.5 2291 13.6 Midway 27.7 0.6 2432 14.4 unnamed.2 28 0.4 2600 15.3 unnamed.3 27.4 0.5 2825 16.5 Colahan 38.6 0.3 3128 18.1 Abbott 38.7 0.9 3280 18.9 Daikakuji 42.4 2.3 3493 20 Yuryaku 43.4 1.6 3520 20.1 Kimmei 39.9 1.2 3668 20.9 Koko 48.1 0.8 3758 21.4 Ojin 55.2 0.7 4102 23.2 Jingu 55.4 0.9 4175 23.6 Nintoku 56.2 0.6 4452 25.1 Suiko.1 59.6 0.6 4794 26.9 Suiko.2 64.7 1.1 4860 27.2 12 Yellowstone Hot Spot: Hot spots may occur on continental lithosphere as well as oceanic lithosphere. For example, Yellowstone National Park is a huge volcanic caldera (collapsed summit of a volcanic cone) that we believe had a culminating eruption some 600,000 years ago. This is only the latest in a series of major caldera-forming eruptions that have traveled occurred during the last 16 million years. In fact, we can track the movement of this still-active volcanic hot spot as it has shifted from Oregon through Idaho (creating its Snake River Plain Volcanic Province) into Wyoming. See map below. Because the hot spot is stationary, we can apply the same method as before in order to calculate this rate. _Q.3.3: a. From the figure above (and the scale give or Google Earth), estimate the direction and speed of the North American plate over the Yellowstone hot spot (plot your data and fit the data using an unconstrained linear fit like in the Hawaiian example show your figure). b. How does your estimate of speed compare with the Pacific Plate? Why do you think they are different?
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